Using the occ Command

ownCloud’s occ command (ownCloud console) is ownCloud’s command-line interface. You can perform many common server operations with occ, such as installing and upgrading ownCloud, manage users, encryption, passwords, LDAP setting, and more.

occ is in the owncloud/ directory; for example /var/www/owncloud on Ubuntu Linux. occ is a PHP script. You must run it as your HTTP user to ensure that the correct permissions are maintained on your ownCloud files and directories, and you must run it from its directory.

Run occ As Your HTTP User

The HTTP user is different on the various Linux distributions. See Setting Strong Directory Permissions to learn how to find your HTTP user.

  • The HTTP user and group in Debian/Ubuntu is www-data.
  • The HTTP user and group in Fedora/CentOS is apache.
  • The HTTP user and group in Arch Linux is http.
  • The HTTP user in openSUSE is wwwrun, and the HTTP group is www.

If your HTTP server is configured to use a different PHP version than the default (/usr/bin/php), occ should be run with the same version. For example, in CentOS 6.5 with SCL-PHP54 installed, the command looks like this:

$ cd /var/www/html/owncloud/
$ sudo -u apache /opt/rh/php54/root/usr/bin/php occ

Running it with no options lists all commands and options, like this example on Ubuntu:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ
ownCloud version 8.1
Usage:
 [options] command [arguments]

Options:
 --help (-h)           Display this help message
 --quiet (-q)          Do not output any message
 --verbose (-v|vv|vvv) Increase the verbosity of messages: 1 for normal
                       output, 2 for more verbose output and 3 for debug
 --version (-V)        Display this application version
 --ansi                Force ANSI output
 --no-ansi             Disable ANSI output
 --no-interaction (-n) Do not ask any interactive question

Available commands:
 check                       check dependencies of the server environment
 help                        Displays help for a command
 list                        Lists commands
 status                      show some status information
 upgrade                     run upgrade routines after installation of a new
                             release. The release has to be installed before.

This is the same as sudo -u www-data php occ list.

Run it with the -h option for syntax help:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ -h

Display your ownCloud version:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ -V
  ownCloud version 8.1

Query your ownCloud server status:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ status
  - installed: true
  - version: 8.1.5.2
  - versionstring: 8.1
  - edition:

occ has options, commands, and arguments. Options and arguments are optional, while commands are required. The syntax is:

occ [options] command [arguments]

Get detailed information on individual commands with the help command, like this example for the maintenance:mode command:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ help maintenance:mode
  Usage:
  maintenance:mode [--on] [--off]

  Options:
  --on                  enable maintenance mode
  --off                 disable maintenance mode
  --help (-h)           Display this help message.
  --quiet (-q)          Do not output any message.
  --verbose (-v|vv|vvv) Increase the verbosity of messages: 1 for normal
  output, 2 for more verbose output and 3 for debug
  --version (-V)        Display this application version.
  --ansi                Force ANSI output.
  --no-ansi             Disable ANSI output.
  --no-interaction (-n) Do not ask any interactive question.

The status command from above has an option to define the output format. The default is plain text, but it can also be json:

$ sudo -u www-data php status --output =json
{"installed":true,"version":"8.1.5.2","versionstring":"8.1.5",
"edition":"Enterprise"}

or json_pretty:

$ sudo -u www-data php status --output =json_pretty
{
    "installed": true,
    "version": "8.1.5.2",
    "versionstring": "8.1.5",
    "edition": "Enterprise"
}

This output option is available on all list and list-like commands: status, check, app:list, config:list, encryption:status and encryption:list-modules

Apps Commands

The app commands list, enable, and disable apps:

app
 app:check-code     check code to be compliant
 app:disable        disable an app
 app:enable         enable an app
 app:list           List all available apps

List all of your installed apps, and show whether they are enabled or disabled:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ app:list

Enable an app, for example the External Storage Support app:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ app:enable files_external
  files_external enabled

Disable an app:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ app:disable files_external
  files_external disabled

app:check-code has multiple checks: it checks if an app uses ownCloud’s public API (OCP) or private API (OC_), and it also checks for deprecated methods and the validity of the info.xml file. By default all checks are enabled. The Activity app is an example of a correctly-formatted app:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ app:check-code activity
  App is compliant - awesome job!

If your app has issues, you’ll see output like this:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ app:check-code foo_app
  Analysing /opt/owncloud/apps/foo_app/events/event/ruleevent.php
  1 errors
   line   33: OC_L10N - private class must not be instantiated
  Analysing /opt/owncloud/apps/foo_app/events/listeners/failurelistener.php
  1 errors
   line   46: OC_User - Static method of private class must not be called
  PHP Fatal error:  Call to undefined method
  PhpParser\Node\Expr\Variable::toString() in
  /opt/owncloud/lib/private/app/codechecker/nodevisitor.php on line 171

Background Jobs Selector

Use the background command to select which scheduler you want to use for controlling background jobs, Ajax, Webcron, or Cron. This is the same as using the Cron section on your ownCloud Admin page:

background
 background:ajax       Use ajax to run background jobs
 background:cron       Use cron to run background jobs
 background:webcron    Use webcron to run background jobs

This example selects Ajax:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ background:ajax
  Set mode for background jobs to 'ajax'

The other two commands are:

  • background:cron
  • background:webcron

See Defining Background Jobs to learn more.

Database Conversion

The SQLite database is good for testing, and for ownCloud servers with small single-user workloads that do not use sync clients, but production servers with multiple users should use MariaDB, MySQL, or PostgreSQL. You can use occ to convert from SQLite to one of these other databases.

db
 db:convert-type           Convert the ownCloud database to the newly
                           configured one
 db:generate-change-script generates the change script from the current
                           connected db to db_structure.xml

You need:

  • Your desired database and its PHP connector installed.
  • The login and password of a database admin user.
  • The database port number, if it is a non-standard port.

This is example converts SQLite to MySQL/MariaDB:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ db:convert-type mysql oc_dbuser 127.0.0.1
oc_database

For a more detailed explanation see Converting Database Type.

Encryption

You may control encryption, and view encryption status:

encryption
 encryption:disable                   Disable encryption
 encryption:enable                    Enable encryption
 encryption:list-modules              List all available encryption modules
 encryption:set-default-module        Set the encryption default module
 encryption:status                    Lists the current status of encryption

encryption:status shows whether you have active encryption, and your default encryption module. To enable encryption you must first enable the Encryption app, and then run encryption:enable:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ app:enable encryption
$ sudo -u www-data php occ encryption:enable
$ sudo -u www-data php occ encryption:status
 - enabled: true
 - defaultModule: OC_DEFAULT_MODULE

Use encryption:disable to disable your encryption module. You must first put your ownCloud server into single-user mode to prevent any user activity.

encryption:list-modules displays your available encryption modules. You will see a list of modules only if you have enabled the Encryption app. Use encryption:set-default-module [module name] to set your desired module.

See Encryption Configuration to learn more.

File Operations

occ has two commands for managing files in ownCloud:

files
 files:cleanup      cleanup filecache
 files:scan         rescan filesystem

The files:scan command scans for new files and updates the file cache. You may rescan all files, per-user, a space-delimited list of users, and limit the search path. If not using --quiet, statistics will be shown at the end of the scan:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ files:scan --help
  Usage:
  files:scan [-p|--path="..."] [-q|--quiet] [-v|vv|vvv --verbose] [--all]
  [user_id1] ... [user_idN]

Arguments:
  user_id               will rescan all files of the given user(s)

Options:
  --path                limit rescan to the user/path given
  --all                 will rescan all files of all known users
  --quiet               suppress any output
  --verbose             files and directories being processed are shown
                        additionally during scanning

Verbosity levels of -vv or -vvv are automatically reset to -v

When using the --path option, the path must consist of following components:

"user_id/files/path"
  or
"user_id/files/mount_name"
  or
"user_id/files/mount_name/path"

where the term files is mandatory.

Example:

--path="/alice/files/Music"

In the example above, the user_id alice is determined implicitly from the path component given.

The --path, --all and [user_id] parameters and are exclusive - only one must be specified.

files:cleanup tidies up the server’s file cache by deleting all file entries that have no matching entries in the storage table.

l10n, Create Javascript Translation Files for Apps

This command is for app developers to update their translation mechanism from ownCloud 7 to ownCloud 8 and later.

Maintenance Commands

Use these commands when you upgrade ownCloud, manage encryption, perform backups and other tasks that require locking users out until you are finished:

maintenance
 maintenance:mode                     set maintenance mode
 maintenance:repair                   repair this installation
 maintenance:singleuser               set single user mode

maintenance:mode locks the sessions of all logged-in users, including administrators, and displays a status screen warning that the server is in maintenance mode. Users who are not already logged in cannot log in until maintenance mode is turned off. When you take the server out of maintenance mode logged-in users must refresh their Web browsers to continue working:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ maintenance:mode --on
$ sudo -u www-data php occ maintenance:mode --off

Putting your ownCloud server into single-user mode allows admins to log in and work, but not ordinary users. This is useful for performing maintenance and troubleshooting on a running server:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ maintenance:singleuser --on
  Single user mode enabled

Turn it off when you’re finished:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ maintenance:singleuser --off
  Single user mode disabled

The maintenance:repair command runs automatically during upgrades to clean up the database, so while you can run it manually there usually isn’t a need to:

 $ sudo -u www-data php occ maintenance:repair
    - Repair mime types
- Repair legacy storages
- Repair config
- Clear asset cache after upgrade
    - Asset pipeline disabled -> nothing to do
- Generate ETags for file where no ETag is present.
    - ETags have been fixed for 0 files/folders.
- Clean tags and favorites
    - 0 tags for delete files have been removed.
    - 0 tag entries for deleted tags have been removed.
    - 0 tags with no entries have been removed.
- Re-enable file app

User Commands

The user commands create and remove users, reset passwords, display a simple report showing how many users you have, and when a user was last logged in:

user
 user:add            adds a user
 user:delete         deletes the specified user
 user:lastseen       shows when the user was logged in last time
 user:report         shows how many users have access
 user:resetpassword  Resets the password of the named user

You can create a new user with their display name, login name, and any group memberships with the user:add command. The syntax is:

user:add [--password-from-env] [--display-name[="..."]] [-g|--group[="..."]]
uid

The display-name corresponds to the Full Name on the Users page in your ownCloud Web UI, and the uid is their Username, which is their login name. This example adds new user Layla Smith, and adds her to the users and db-admins groups. Any groups that do not exist are created:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ user:add --display-name="Layla Smith"
  --group="users" --group="db-admins" layla
  Enter password:
  Confirm password:
  The user "layla" was created successfully
  Display name set to "Layla Smith"
  User "layla" added to group "users"
  User "layla" added to group "db-admins"

Go to your Users page, and you will see your new user.

password-from-env allows you to set the user’s password from an environment variable. This prevents the password from being exposed to all users via the process list, and will only be visible in the history of the user (root) running the command. This also permits creating scripts for adding multiple new users.

To use password-from-env you must run as “real” root, rather than sudo, because sudo strips environment variables. This example adds new user Fred Jones:

# export OC_PASS=newpassword
# su -s /bin/sh www-data -c 'php occ user:add --password-from-env
  --display-name="Fred Jones" --group="users" fred'
The user "fred" was created successfully
Display name set to "Fred Jones"
User "fred" added to group "users"

You can reset any user’s password, including administrators (see Resetting a Lost Admin Password):

$ sudo -u www-data php occ user:resetpassword layla
  Enter a new password:
  Confirm the new password:
  Successfully reset password for layla

You may also use password-from-env to reset passwords:

# export OC_PASS=newpassword
# su -s /bin/sh www-data -c 'php occ user:resetpassword --password-from-env
  layla'
  Successfully reset password for layla

You can delete users:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ user:delete fred

View a user’s most recent login:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ user:lastseen layla
  layla's last login: 09.01.2015 18:46

Generate a simple report that counts all users, including users on external user authentication servers such as LDAP:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ user:report
+------------------+----+
| User Report      |    |
+------------------+----+
| Database         | 12 |
| LDAP             | 86 |
|                  |    |
| total users      | 98 |
|                  |    |
| user directories | 2  |
+------------------+----+

Command Line Installation

These commands are available only after you have downloaded and unpacked the ownCloud archive, and taken no further installation steps.

You can install ownCloud entirely from the command line. After downloading the tarball and copying ownCloud into the appropriate directories, or after installing ownCloud packages (See Preferred Linux Installation Method and Manual Installation on Linux) you can use occ commands in place of running the graphical Installation Wizard.

Apply correct permissions to your ownCloud directories; see Setting Strong Directory Permissions. Then choose your occ options. This lists your available options:

$ sudo -u www-data php /var/www/owncloud/occ
ownCloud is not installed - only a limited number of commands are available
ownCloud version 8.1.5.

Usage:
 [options] command [arguments]

Options:
 --help (-h)           Display this help message
 --quiet (-q)          Do not output any message
 --verbose (-v|vv|vvv) Increase the verbosity of messages: 1 for normal
 output,  2 for more verbose output and 3 for debug
 --version (-V)        Display this application version
 --ansi                Force ANSI output
 --no-ansi             Disable ANSI output
 --no-interaction (-n) Do not ask any interactive question

Available commands:
 check                 check dependencies of the server environment
 help                  Displays help for a command
 list                  Lists commands
 status                show some status information
 app
 app:check-code        check code to be compliant
 l10n
 l10n:createjs         Create javascript translation files for a given app
 maintenance
 maintenance:install   install ownCloud

Display your maintenance:install options:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ help maintenance:install
ownCloud is not installed - only a limited number of commands are available
Usage:
 maintenance:install [--database="..."] [--database-name="..."]
[--database-host="..."] [--database-user="..."] [--database-pass[="..."]]
[--database-table-prefix[="..."]] [--admin-user="..."] [--admin-pass="..."]
[--data-dir="..."]

Options:
 --database               Supported database type (default: "sqlite")
 --database-name          Name of the database
 --database-host          Hostname of the database (default: "localhost")
 --database-user          User name to connect to the database
 --database-pass          Password of the database user
 --database-table-prefix  Prefix for all tables (default: oc_)
 --admin-user             User name of the admin account (default: "admin")
 --admin-pass             Password of the admin account
 --data-dir               Path to data directory (default:
                          "/var/www/owncloud/data")
 --help (-h)              Display this help message
 --quiet (-q)             Do not output any message
 --verbose (-v|vv|vvv)    Increase the verbosity of messages: 1 for normal
  output, 2 for more verbose output and 3 for debug
 --version (-V)           Display this application version
 --ansi                   Force ANSI output
 --no-ansi                Disable ANSI output
 --no-interaction (-n)    Do not ask any interactive question

This example completes the installation:

$ cd /var/www/owncloud/
$ sudo -u www-data php occ maintenance:install --database
"mysql" --database-name "owncloud"  --database-user "root" --database-pass
"password" --admin-user "admin" --admin-pass "password"
ownCloud is not installed - only a limited number of commands are available
ownCloud was successfully installed

Supported databases are:

- sqlite (SQLite3 - ownCloud Community edition only)
- mysql (MySQL/MariaDB)
- pgsql (PostgreSQL)
- oci (Oracle - ownCloud Enterprise edition only)

Command Line Upgrade

These commands are available only after you have downloaded upgraded packages, or downloaded and unpacked tar archives and copied them to their respective directories in your Web directory, and before you complete the upgrade.

List all options, like this example on CentOS Linux:

$ sudo -u apache php occ upgrade -h
Usage:
upgrade [--skip-migration-test] [--dry-run] [--no-app-disable]

Options:
--skip-migration-test  skips the database schema migration simulation and
   update directly
--dry-run              only runs the database schema migration simulation, do
  not actually update
--no-app-disable       skips the disable of third party apps
--help (-h)            Display this help message.
--quiet (-q)           Do not output any message.
--verbose (-v|vv|vvv)  Increase the verbosity of messages: 1 for normal
                       output, 2 for more verbose output and 3 for debug.
--version (-V)         Display this application version.
--ansi                 Force ANSI output.
--no-ansi              Disable ANSI output.
--no-interaction (-n)  Do not ask any interactive question

When you are performing an update or upgrade on your ownCloud server (see the Maintenance section of this manual), it is better to use occ to perform the database upgrade step, rather than the Web GUI, in order to avoid timeouts. PHP scripts invoked from the Web interface are limited to 3600 seconds. In larger environments this may not be enough, leaving the system in an inconsistent state. After performing all the preliminary steps (see How to Upgrade Your ownCloud Server) use this command to upgrade your databases, like this example on CentOS Linux. Note how it details the steps:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ upgrade
ownCloud or one of the apps require upgrade - only a limited number of
commands are available
Turned on maintenance mode

Checked database schema update
Checked database schema update for apps
Updated database
Updating <gallery> ...

Updated <gallery> to 0.6.1
Updating <activity> ...
Updated <activity> to 2.1.0
Update successful
Turned off maintenance mode

Enabling verbosity displays timestamps:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ upgrade -v
ownCloud or one of the apps require upgrade - only a limited number of commands
are available
2015-06-23T09:06:15+0000 Turned on maintenance mode
2015-06-23T09:06:15+0000 Checked database schema update
2015-06-23T09:06:15+0000 Checked database schema update for apps
2015-06-23T09:06:15+0000 Updated database
2015-06-23T09:06:15+0000 Updated <files_sharing> to 0.6.6
2015-06-23T09:06:15+0000 Update successful
2015-06-23T09:06:15+0000 Turned off maintenance mode

If there is an error it throws an exception, and the error is detailed in your ownCloud logfile, so you can use the log output to figure out what went wrong, or to use in a bug report:

Turned on maintenance mode
Checked database schema update
Checked database schema update for apps
Updated database
Updating <files_sharing> ...
Exception
ServerNotAvailableException: LDAP server is not available
Update failed
Turned off maintenance mode

Before completing the upgrade, ownCloud first runs a simulation by copying all database tables to new tables, and then performs the upgrade on them, to ensure that the upgrade will complete correctly. The copied tables are deleted after the upgrade. This takes twice as much time, which on large installations can be many hours, so you can omit this step with the --skip-migration-test option:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ upgrade --skip-migration-test

You can perform this simulation manually with the --dry-run option:

$ sudo -u www-data php occ upgrade --dry-run
All documentation licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.