The Installation Wizard

Warning

If you are planning to use the installation wizard, we strongly encourage you to protect it, through some form of password authentication, or access control. If the installer is left unprotected when exposed to the public internet, there is the possibility that a malicious actor could finish the installation and block you out — or worse. So please ensure that only you — or someone from your organization — can access the web installer.

Quick Start

When the ownCloud prerequisites are fulfilled and all ownCloud files are installed, the last step to completing the installation is running the Installation Wizard. This involves just three steps:

  1. Point your web browser to http://localhost/owncloud
  2. Enter your desired administrator’s username and password.
  3. Click “Finish Setup”.
screenshot of the installation wizard

You’re now finished and can start using your new ownCloud server. Of course, there is much more that you can do to set up your ownCloud server for best performance and security. In the following sections we will cover important installation and post-installation steps. Note that you must follow the instructions in Setting Strong Permissions in order to use the occ Command.

In-Depth Guide

This section provides a more detailed guide to the installation wizard. Specifically, it is broken down into three steps:

  1. Data Directory Location
  2. Database Choices
  3. Post-Installation Steps

Data Directory Location

Click “Storage and Database” to expose additional installation configuration options for your ownCloud data directory and database.

installation wizard with all options exposed

You should locate your ownCloud data directory outside of your Web root if you are using an HTTP server other than Apache, or you may wish to store your ownCloud data in a different location for other reasons (e.g. on a storage server).

Warning

Please know that ownCloud’s data directory must be exclusive to ownCloud and not be modified manually by any other process or user.

It is best to configure your data directory location at installation, as it is difficult to move after installation. You may put it anywhere; in this example is it located in /var/oc_data. This directory must already exist, and must be owned by your HTTP user (see Set Strong Directory Permissions).

Database Choices

When installing ownCloud Server & ownCloud Enterprise editions the administrator may choose one of 4 supported database products. These are:

  • SQLite
  • MYSQL/MariaDB
  • PostgreSQL
  • Oracle 11g (Enterprise-edition only)

SQLite

SQLite is the default database for ownCloud Server — but is not supported by the ownCloud Enterprise edition.

Note

SQLite is only good for testing and lightweight single user setups. It has no client synchronization support, so other devices will not be able to synchronize with the data stored in an ownCloud SQLite database.

SQLite will be installed by the ownCloud package and all the necessary dependencies will be satisfied. If you used the package manager to install ownCloud, you may “Finish Setup” with no additional steps to configure ownCloud using the SQLite database for limited use.

MYSQL/MariaDB

MariaDB is the ownCloud recommended database. It may be used with either ownCloud Server or ownCloud Enterprise editions. To install the recommended MySQL/MariaDB database, use the following command:

sudo apt-get install mariadb-server

If you have an administrator login that has permissions to create and modify databases, you may choose “Storage & Database”. Then, enter your database administrator username and password, and the name you want for your ownCloud database. Alternatively, you can use these steps to create a temporary database administrator account.

sudo mysql --user=root mysql
CREATE USER 'dbadmin'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'Apassword';
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'dbadmin'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION;
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
exit

For more detailed information, see MySQL/MariaDB.

PostgreSQL

PostgreSQL is also supported by ownCloud. To install it, use the following command (or that of your preferred package manager):

sudo apt-get install postgresql

In order to allow ownCloud access to the database, create a known password for the default user, postgres, which was added when the database was installed.

sudo -i -u postgres psql
postgres=# \password
Enter new password:
Enter it again:
postgres=# \q
exit

Oracle 11g

Oracle 11g is only supported for the ownCloud Enterprise edition.

Database Setup By ownCloud

Your database and PHP connectors must be installed before you run the Installation Wizard by clicking the “Finish setup” button. After you enter your temporary or root administrator login for your database, the installer creates a special database user with privileges limited to the ownCloud database.

Following this, ownCloud needs only this special ownCloud database user and drops the temporary or root database login. This new user is named from your ownCloud admin user, with an oc_ prefix, and given a random password. The ownCloud database user and password are written into config.php:

For MySQL/MariaDB:

'dbuser' => 'oc_dbadmin',
'dbpassword' => 'pX65Ty5DrHQkYPE5HRsDvyFHlZZHcm',

For PostgreSQL:

'dbuser' => 'oc_postgres',
'dbpassword' => 'pX65Ty5DrHQkYPE5HRsDvyFHlZZHcm',

Click Finish Setup, and you’re ready to start using your new ownCloud server.

Post-Installation Steps

Now we will look at some important post-installation steps. For hardened security we recommend setting the permissions on your ownCloud directories as strictly as possible, and for proper server operations. This should be done immediately after the initial installation and before running the setup.

Your HTTP user must own the config/, data/, apps/ respectively the apps2/ directories so that you can configure ownCloud, create, modify and delete your data files, and install apps via the ownCloud Web interface.

You can find your HTTP user in your HTTP server configuration files, or you can use PHP Version and Information (Look for the User/Group line).

  • The HTTP user and group in Debian/Ubuntu is www-data.
  • The HTTP user and group in Fedora/CentOS is apache.
  • The HTTP user and group in Arch Linux is http.
  • The HTTP user in openSUSE is wwwrun, and the HTTP group is www.

Note

When using an NFS mount for the data directory, do not change its ownership from the default. The simple act of mounting the drive will set proper permissions for ownCloud to write to the directory. Changing ownership as above could result in some issues if the NFS mount is lost.

The easy way to set the correct permissions is to copy and run the script, below. The script sets proper permissions and ownership including the handling of necessary directories. The script also prepares for an apps2 directory, for details see config.sample.php:

  • Replace the ocpath variable with the path to your ownCloud directory.
  • Replace the ocdata variable with the path to your ownCloud data directory.
  • Replace the ocapps2 variable with the path to your ownCloud apps2 directory.

In case use want to use links for the data and apps2 directory:

  • Replace the linkdata variable with the path to your ownCloud linked data directory.
  • Replace the linkapps2 variable with the path to your ownCloud linked apps2 directory.

Set the correct HTTP user and group according your needs:

  • Replace the htuser and htgroup variables with your HTTP user and group.

In case of upgrading using tar:

  • Replace the oldocpath variable with the path to your old ownCloud directory.
#!/bin/bash

ocpath='/var/www/owncloud'
ocdata='/var/www/owncloud/data'
ocapps2='/var/www/owncloud/apps2'
oldocpath='/var/www/owncloud.old'
linkdata="/var/mylinks/data"
linkapps2="/var/mylinks/apps2"
htuser='www-data'
htgroup='www-data'
rootuser='root'

# Because the data directory can be huge or on external storage, an automatic chmod/chown can take a while.
# Therefore this directory can be treated differently.
# If you have already created an external data and apps2 directory which you want to link,
# set the paths above accordingly. This script can link and set the proper rights and permissions
# depending what you enter when running the script.
# You have to run this script twice, one time to prepare installation and one time post installation

# Example input
# New install using mkdir:     n/n/n (create missing directories, setup permissions and ownership)
# Upgrade using mkdir:         n/n/n (you move/replace data, apps2 and config.php manually, set setup permissions and ownership)
# New install using links:     y/y/n (link existing directories, setup permissions and ownership)
# Upgrade using links:         y/n/y (link existing directories, copy config.php, permissions and ownership are already ok)
# Post installation/upgrade:   either n/n/n or y/y/n
# Reset all perm & own:        either n/n/n or y/y/n

echo
read -p "Do you want to use ln instead of mkdir for creating directories (y/N)? " -r -e answer
if echo "$answer" | grep -iq "^y"; then
  uselinks="y"
else
  uselinks="n"
fi

read -p "Do you also want to chmod/chown these links (y/N)? " -r -e answer
if echo "$answer" | grep -iq "^y"; then
  chmdir="y"
else
  chmdir="n"
fi

read -p "If you upgrade, do you want to copy an existing config.php file (y/N)? " -r -e answer
if echo "$answer" | grep -iq "^y"; then
  upgrdcfg="y"
else
  upgrdcfg="n"
fi

printf "\nCreating or linking possible missing directories \n"
mkdir -p $ocpath/updater
# check if directory creation is possible and create if ok
if [ "$uselinks" = "n" ]; then
  if [ -L ${ocdata} ]; then
    echo "Symlink for $ocdata found but mkdir requested. Exiting."
    echo
    exit
  else
    echo "mkdir $ocdata"
    echo
    mkdir -p $ocdata
  fi
  if [ -L ${ocapps2} ]; then
    echo "Symlink for $ocapps2 found but mkdir requested. Exiting."
    echo
    exit
  else
    printf "mkdir $ocapps2 \n"
    mkdir -p $ocapps2
  fi
else
  if [ -d ${ocdata} ]; then
    echo "Directory for $ocdata found but link requested. Exiting."
    echo
    exit
  else
    printf "ln $ocdata \n"
    ln -sfn $linkdata $ocdata
  fi
  if [ -d ${ocapps2} ]; then
    echo "Directory for $ocapps2 found but link requested. Exiting."
    echo
    exit
  else
    printf "ln $ocapps2 \n"
    ln -sfn $linkapps2 $ocapps2
  fi
fi

# Copy if requested an existing config.php
if [ "$upgrdcfg" = "y" ]; then
  if [ -f ${oldocpath}/config/config.php ]; then
    printf "\nCopy existing config.php file \n"
    cp ${oldocpath}/config/config.php ${ocpath}/config/config.php
  else
    printf "Skipping copy config.php, not found: ${oldocpath}/config/config.php \n"
  fi
fi

printf "\nchmod files and directories excluding data and apps2 directory \n"
find -L ${ocpath} -path ${ocdata} -prune -o -path ${ocapps2} -prune -o -type f -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0640
find -L ${ocpath} -path ${ocdata} -prune -o -path ${ocapps2} -prune -o -type d -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0750

# no error messages on empty directories
if [ "$chmdir" = "n" ] && [ "$uselinks" = "n" ]; then
  printf "chmod data and apps2 directory (mkdir) \n"
  if [ -n "$(ls -A $ocdata)" ]; then
    find ${ocdata}/ -type f -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0640
  fi
  find ${ocdata}/ -type d -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0750
  if [ -n "$(ls -A $ocapps2)" ]; then
    find ${ocapps2}/ -type f -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0640
  fi
  find ${ocapps2}/ -type d -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0750
fi

if [ "$chmdir" = "y" ] && [ "$uselinks" = "y" ]; then
  printf "chmod data and apps2 directory (linked) \n"
  if [ -n "$(ls -A $ocdata)" ]; then
    find -L ${ocdata}/ -type f -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0640
  fi
  find -L ${ocdata}/ -type d -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0750
  if [ -n "$(ls -A $ocapps2)" ]; then
    find -L ${ocapps2}/ -type f -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0640
  fi
  find -L ${ocapps2}/ -type d -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0750
fi

printf "\nchown files and directories excluding data and apps2 directory \n"
find  -L $ocpath  -path ${ocdata} -prune -o -path ${ocapps2} -prune -o -type d -print0 | xargs -0 chown ${rootuser}:${htgroup}
find  -L $ocpath  -path ${ocdata} -prune -o -path ${ocapps2} -prune -o -type f -print0 | xargs -0 chown ${rootuser}:${htgroup}

# do only if the directories are present
if [ -d ${ocpath}/apps/ ]; then
  printf "chown apps directory \n"
  chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/apps/
fi
if [ -d ${ocpath}/config/ ]; then
  printf "chown config directory \n"
  chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/config/
fi
if [ -d ${ocpath}/updater/ ]; then
  printf "chown updater directory \n"
  chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/updater
fi

if [ "$chmdir" = "n" ] && [ "$uselinks" = "n" ]; then
  printf "chown data and apps2 directories (mkdir) \n"
  chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocapps2}/
  chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocdata}/
fi
if [ "$chmdir" = "y" ] && [ "$uselinks" = "y" ]; then
  printf "chown data and apps2 directories (linked) \n"
  chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocapps2}/
  chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocdata}/
fi

printf "\nchmod occ command to make it executable \n"
if [ -f ${ocpath}/occ ]; then
  chmod +x ${ocpath}/occ
fi

printf "chmod/chown .htaccess \n"
if [ -f ${ocpath}/.htaccess ]; then
  chmod 0644 ${ocpath}/.htaccess
  chown ${rootuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/.htaccess
fi
if [ -f ${ocdata}/.htaccess ];then
  chmod 0644 ${ocdata}/.htaccess
  chown ${rootuser}:${htgroup} ${ocdata}/.htaccess
fi
echo

If you have customized your ownCloud installation and your file paths are different than the standard installation, modify this script accordingly.

This summary lists the recommended modes and ownership for your ownCloud directories and files:

  • All files should be read-write for the file owner, read-only for the group owner, and zero for the world
  • All directories should be executable (because directories always need the executable bit set), read-write for the directory owner, and read-only for the group owner
  • The apps/ directory should be owned by [HTTP user]:[HTTP group]
  • The apps2/ directory should be owned by [HTTP user]:[HTTP group]
  • The config/ directory should be owned by [HTTP user]:[HTTP group]
  • The data/ directory should be owned by [HTTP user]:[HTTP group]
  • The updater/ directory should be owned by [HTTP user]:[HTTP group]
  • The [ocpath]/.htaccess file should be owned by root:[HTTP group]
  • The data/.htaccess file should be owned by root:[HTTP group]
  • Both .htaccess files are read-write file owner, read-only group and world

These strong permissions prevent upgrading your ownCloud server; see Setting Permissions for Updating for a script to quickly change permissions to allow upgrading.

All documentation licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.