The Core Application Files

Now that you know how the request life cycle works, let’s look at the core application files. Any ownCloud application, at its most elementary, only needs a few files and directories; these are:

.
├── appinfo                         # Contains app metadata and configuration
│   ├── app.php
│   ├── application.php
│   ├── info.xml
│   └── routes.php
└── lib                             # Contains the application's class files
    └── Controller                  # Contains the application's controllers

In addition to these, there are several additional, commonly used, directories:

  • css/: Contains the CSS files
  • js/: Contains the JavaScript files
  • templates/: Contains the templates
  • tests/: Contains the tests

Now let’s get an understanding of the core configuration files.

appinfo/info.xml

This stores the application’s properties, or metadata, and is one of the most important files. Rather like a composer.json file (only in XML format), in this file you can set details such as the application’s: id, name, description, license, author, version, namespace, category, and dependencies.

In appinfo/info.xml, add the following XML, changing it as necessary:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<info>
    <id>ownnotes</id>
    <name>Own Notes</name>
    <description>My first ownCloud App</description>
    <licence>AGPL</licence>
    <author>Your Name</author>
    <version>0.0.1</version>
    <namespace>OwnNotes</namespace>
    <category>tool</category>
    <dependencies>
        <owncloud min-version="9" />
        <owncloud max-version="10" />
    </dependencies>
</info>

Note

Pay careful attention to the namespace element. This element defines the application’s relative namespace. This namespace, in turn, sits inside a parent ownCloud namespace, called OCA. As the application’s namespace is OwnNotes, then it’s fully-qualified namespace is OCA\\OwnNotes.

To learn more about the options able to be stored in this file, check out the App Metadata section of the documentation.

appinfo/app.php

The appinfo/app.php is the first file that is loaded and executed. It usually contains the application’s core configuration settings. These can include:

  • id: This is the string under which your app will be referenced in ownCloud.
  • order: Indicates the order in which your application will appear in the apps menu.
  • href: The application’s default route, rendered when the application’s first loaded.
  • icon: The application’s icon.
  • name: The application’s title used in ownCloud.

To start off with, in appinfo/app.php, add the following code:

<?php

\OC::$server->getNavigationManager()->add(function () {
    $urlGenerator = \OC::$server->getURLGenerator();
    return [
        // The string under which your app will be referenced in owncloud
        'id' => 'ownnotes',

        // The sorting weight for the navigation.
        // The higher the number, the higher will it be listed in the navigation
        'order' => 10,

        // The route that will be shown on startup
        'href' => $urlGenerator->linkToRoute('ownnotes.page.index'),

        // The icon that will be shown in the navigation, located in img/
        'icon' => $urlGenerator->imagePath('ownnotes', 'ownnotes.svg'),

        // The application's title, used in the navigation & the settings page of your app
        'name' => \OC::$server->getL10N('ownnotes')->t('Test App'),
    ];
});

It can also contain Background Jobs and Hooks registrations, as in the example below.

// execute OCA\MyApp\BackgroundJob\Task::run when cron is called
\OC::$server->getJobList()->add('OCA\MyApp\BackgroundJob\Task');

// execute OCA\MyApp\Hooks\User::deleteUser before a user is being deleted
\OCP\Util::connectHook('OC_User', 'pre_deleteUser', 'OCA\MyApp\Hooks\User', 'deleteUser');

It is also possible to include JavaScript or CSS for other apps, by placing the addScript or addStyle functions inside this file as well. However, this is strongly discouraged, because the file is loaded on each request, as well as for requests that do not return HTML, such as JSON and WebDAV.

<?php

\OCP\Util::addScript('myapp', 'script');  // include js/script.js for every app
\OCP\Util::addStyle('myapp', 'style');    // include css/style.css for every app

lib/Controller/PageController.php

While not strictly necessary, if you want to do anything of value, you’re likely going to need a controller. This can be to render page content, API content, or something else entirely. In lib/Controller/PageController.php, add the following code:

<?php
namespace OCA\ownnotes\Controller;

use OCP\AppFramework\{
    Controller,
    Http\TemplateResponse
};

/**
 - Define a new page controller
 */
class PageController extends Controller {
    /**
     - @NoCSRFRequired
     */
    public function index() {
        return ['test' => 'hi'];
    }
}

What we’re doing here is to create a minimalist controller with one action, index, which is what will handle the route that we’ll define shortly. The index function returns an array, which we’ll see next.

appinfo/routes.php

As the name implies, in this file you register your application’s routes, and then link them to a handler. In appinfo/routes.php, add the following code:

<?php

namespace OCA\ownnotes\AppInfo;

$application = new Application();
$application->registerRoutes($this, [
    'routes' => [
        [
            // The handler is the PageController's index method
            'name' => 'page#index',
            // The route
            'url' => '/',
            // Only accessible with GET requests
            'verb' => 'GET'
        ],
    ]
]);

appinfo/application.php

This is the core class of the application. Here, you setup your controllers among a range of other things. In appinfo/application.php, add the following code:

<?php
namespace OCA\ownnotes\AppInfo;

use \OCP\AppFramework\App;
use \OCA\ownnotes\Controller\PageController;

class Application extends App {
    public function __construct(array $urlParams=array()){
        parent::__construct('ownnotes', $urlParams);

        $container = $this->getContainer();
        $container->registerService('PageController', function($c) {
            return new PageController(
                $c->query('AppName'),
                $c->query('Request')
            );
        });
    }
}

Create the Core File & Directory Structure

To create these, in a new directory that will be called ownnotes, run the following code in your terminal, from where you want to create the new project:

mkdir -p ownnotes/{appinfo,lib/Controller}
touch appinfo/{app,application,routes}.php appinfo/info.xml lib/Controller/PageController.php
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